G 9. Acculturation sur la frontière orientale de l’empire romain: l’exemple de Zeugma et de son cadre de vie

Les fouilles de sauvetage qui ont été conduites entre 1996 et 2000 sur le site de Zeugma (Turquie, province de Gaziantep), ont permis de mettre au jour un matériel considérable. La situation de ce site fondé au début du IIIe siècle avant J.-C. par Séleukos Nikator, sur la rive droite de l’Euphrate qui constitua la frontière orientale de l’Empire romain pendant une grande partie des Ier et IIe s. ap. J.-C., et sur un important lieu de franchissement du fleuve, explique qu’il se trouve à un carrefour d’influences : la population indigène ainsi que les anciens colons grecs constituent certainement une part importante des habitants de la ville. Mais il faut aussi prendre en compte l’apport occidental puisque la légion IIII Scythica stationna dans la ville, ainsi que les contacts qui purent être entretenus avec les populations d’origine iranienne qui occupent successivement la rive gauche du fleuve, Parthes et Sassanides. Nous essaierons de saisir ces influences diverses à travers une étude du cadre de vie à Zeugma à l’époque romaine, qui englobe aussi bien l’architecture et la décoration des maisons que l’expression des croyances religieuses et la restitution de gestes de la vie quotidienne comme la découpe des viandes et les habitudes alimentaires.

 

  1. Claude Guintard (École nationale vétérinaire de Nantes), Guillaume Rousseau (Clinique des Animaux de Compagnie (ENVN)), Florence Mellet (École nationale vétérinaire de Nantes)

Place de l’animal domestique à Zeugma, apport de l’archéozoologie: évolution de la consommation carnée selon les époques d’occupation

  1. Anne-Sophie Martz (Nancy University (France) – CNRS)

La brittle ware, une vaisselle multiculturelle. L’exemple de Zeugma

  1. Catherine Abadie-Reynal (Nancy University (France) – CNRS)

Acculturation at habitat à Zeugma à l’époque romaine

  1. Mehmet Önal (Gaziantep Müze Müdürlügü)

Deities and Cultures Meet on the seal impressions in Zeugma

G 8. Hellenization and Romanization of the Land of Israel: new archaeological evidence

Ancient Israel as part of the Near East encountered the Greek and Roman cultures in their various phases and both assimilated and rejected them through a long-lasting interaction. The main issue proposed in this session is the presentation of several aspects of such an interaction commonly termed as ‘Hellenization’ and ‘Romanization’ as reflected by archaeological, epigraphic and artistic material which has been revealed by the archaeological research carried out in Israel during the last decades. The papers included in the session will cover the transition from ‘Orientalism’ to ‘Hellenism’, the Jewish-Roman conflict seen through the Second Jewish War against the Romans (Bar-Kokhba War), followed by the epigraphic material presenting the use of Greek and Latin in the area as part of the cultural impact and interaction and concluded by the Hellenic/Hellenistic cultural heritage of Byzantine Palestine as reflected by the mosaic pavements.

 

  1. Moshe Fischer (Tel Aviv University)

Greece and Rome in the Near East: General Aspects, Problematic and State of Research of Ancient Israel – Introductory Paper

2. Oren Tal (Tel Aviv University)

Palestine in Transition from Orientalism to Hellenism

3. Werner Eck (Universität zu Köln)

Griechisch und Latein: Die Bedeutung der beiden Herrschaftssprachen in Palaestina von Alexander bis zum Ende der römischen Herrschaft

4. Boaz Zissu and Amos Kloner  (Bar-Ilan University, Israel)

The Archaeology of the Second Jewish Revolt against Rome (The Bar Kokhba Revolt): New Insights

5. Rina Talgam (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

Hellenism in Byzantine Palaestina and Arabia: Mosaic Art as a Test Case

6. Moshe Fischer (Tel Aviv University)

Concluding Session: Hellenization and Romanization of Ancient Israel With or Without Quotation Marks: Theories vis-à-vis Archaeological and Literary Evidence

G 7. Palmira tra Oriente e Occidente

La sessione è rivolta ad analizzare i rapporti culturali tra Oriente e Occidente nell’Impero Romano, incentrando l’attenzione sulla città di Palmira, importante centro carovaniero del deserto siriano, posto a metà strada tra il mar Mediterraneo e l’Eufrate. In particolare l’analisi interesserà, oltre all’insediamento, alcuni manufatti e tecnologie che sono particolarmente significativi per il riconoscimento dell’identità multietnica e multiculturale della città siriana. In tal senso le ricerche sui rilievi funerari palmireni, maschili e femminili, intendono concentrarsi su alcuni “dettagli” peculiari, quali rispettivamente i vasi per le offerte e i gioielli, e hanno l’obiettivo di verificare, attraverso il confronto con i manufatti reali, i rapporti, gli scambi, le contaminazioni tra manufatti, modelli e mode delle due metà dell’Impero. Oltre all’ambito suntuario, tale problematica sarà affrontata anche da un’angolatura completamente differente, quale è quella dei materiali, delle tecniche e dei modi di costruire gli spazi del vivere quotidiano.

Altri interventi, infine, sono finalizzati, attraverso i risultati delle ricerche più recenti, a definire il ruolo di Palmira nella romanità orientale e a confrontarlo con altre realtà urbane dell’Oriente ellenistico-romano. Si sottoporrà inoltre a una attenta verifica lo stesso concetto semplificante di “Oriente romano”, la cui “unità” deve essere indagata nelle sue variegate e complesse componenti.

 

  1. Maria Teresa Grassi (Università degli Studi di Milano)

Introduzione: Palmira tra Oriente e Occidente

  1. Maria Teresa Grassi (Università degli Studi di Milano)

La romanità orientale e Palmira: nuove ricerche

  1. Alberto Bacchetta -con appendice di Ivan Bonardi- (Università degli Studi di Milano)

L’edilizia residenziale della Siria romana: materiali, tecniche e sistemi costruttivi

  1. Lilia Palmieri ( Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano)

Il lusso privato in Oriente: analisi comparata dei gioielli delle signore di Palmira

  1. Gioia Zenoni (Università degli Studi di Milano)

Modelli e mode fra Oriente e Occidente: le collane delle signore di Palmira

  1. Andrea Baudini (Università degli Studi di Milano)

Ellenismo e Oriente Romano: città a confronto in un’unità solo apparente

G 6. Hellenistic-Roman Coastal Settlements of the Southern Levant: Regional and Interregional Assessments

Organizers: Katerina Galor & Tomasz Waliszewski (Brown University)
Discussant: Oren Tal (Tel Aviv University)

  1. Joseph Patrich
    Hellenistic and Roman Berytus from Tryphon to Trajan: settlement and economy
  2. Katharina Galor (Brown University)
    Hellenistic and Roman Apollonia-Arsuf
  3. Jean-Baptiste Humbert (École biblique et Archéologique Française de Jérusalem)
    Une maison hellénistique aux murs peints à Gaza (Palestine)
  4. Kevin Butcher (University of Warwick)
    Hellenistic and Roman Berytus: regional and interregional exchange
  5. Pierre-Louis Gatier (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Tyre, métropole de la Phénicie romaine
  6. Tomasz Waliszewski (University of Warsaw, Poland)
    Porphyreon, Chhim and the hinterland of Sidon in the Roman period

G 5. Formation d’une culture urbaine aux marges du désert syro-arabique: espaces urbains et périurbains

Cette session sera organisée autour de cinq exemples d’agglomérations implantées aux marges du désert syro-arabique. Les formations géo-pédologiques des marges du désert arabique et leur faible occupation au cours des périodes historiques récentes ont souvent laissé visibles, et accessibles dans leur ensemble, les traces, souvent d’une précision étonnante, à la fois d’agglomérations antiques et de l’organisation des territoires dans lesquels elles s’intégraient. L’enquête, actuellement en cours, sur des sites de dimensions différentes, en Syrie (ville de Palmyre, villages du Leja en Syrie du Sud), Jordanie (Pétra), Arabie Saoudite (Medaïn Saleh = Hégra), Yemen (Makainoun) conduit à s’interroger sur l’existence et les origines de formes d’organisation urbaine qui seraient propres à ces milieux naturels, à leur peuplement, à leur exploitation économique. La culture urbaine dont témoignent ces sites se trouve confrontée, à partir de la fin de l’époque hellénistique, à celle de la Méditerranée orientale, implantée de longue date dans la zone côtière, puis aux programmes politiques de l’empire romain qui tendent à imposer un modèle unique d’espace urbain.

Les études de cas proposés prennent comme point de départ l’identification d’espaces distincts, aux fonctions définies, qui ont laissé des traces plus ou moins lisibles selon les sites : habitat et pouvoir, espaces économiques, funéraires, cultuels, juxtaposés ou en recouvrement partiel. Les analyses spatiales engagées tirent leur intérêt particulier de la comparaison de variantes régionales permettant de cerner les différents paramètres de la formation des villages et des villes dans cette zone.

 

  1. Jean-Marie Dentzer (l’Université de Paris 1)

Introduction: présentation de la problématique

  1. Jérôme Rohmer (Université Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne)

Late Hellenistic Settlement in Hawrân (Southern Syria). Survival of Proto-historic Urbanism and Village Architecture in a Hellenized Context

  1. Laila Nehmé (CNRS, UMR 8167)

Ancient Hegra, a Nabataean Site in a Semi-arid Environment. The Urban Space and Preliminary Results from the First Excavation Season

  1. Manar Hammad (l’Université de Paris 1)

Les étapes du développement urbain de Palmyre

  1. Michel Mouton (CNRS / Maison de l’Archéologie et de l’Ethnologie), Anne Benoist (CNRS / Archéorient)

The Formation of a Regional Center in South Arabia in Antiquity

  1. Stephan Schmid (Universität zu Berlin)

Pétra ville nabatéenne: l’espace des vivants, l’espace des morts et l’espace des dieux

G 4. Constructing spaces: assessing architectural and decorative exchange between East and West

This session investigates the impact of cross-cultural exchange on the architecture and decoration of public and private spaces in the central and eastern Mediterranean. The papers examine the material record as a key to understanding the influence that cultural, religious, social or economic contact can have on the development of particular architectural solutions or construction practices. The session seeks not only to showcase methodologies for the interpretation of the material evidence, highlighting the continued importance of comparative approaches, but also to challenge current interpretations on the nature of cultural exchange through a range of ancient structures. From the artefactual record of Alexandria and Heracleion, through the creation of interior decoration to the construction of religious spaces, this session seeks to forefront multi-level interaction as a prime motivator behind both changes and continuity visible in the material record. It coincides with the theme of the conference by focusing on the expression these meetings between cultures took, and how we might identify and interpret them on the basis of the surviving archaeological remains.

 

  1. Friederike Hoebel (University of Cottbus, Germany)

Das Heiligtum im so genannten Venusareal in Heliopolis / Baalbek – Entwicklung vom lokalen Kult zum romanisierten Kultkomplex

  1. Daniel Lohmann (University of Cottbus, Germany; German Archaeological Institute)

Giant strides towards Monumentality – The Architecture of the Jupiter Sanctuary in Baalbek/ Heliopolis

  1. Jonathan Cole (University of Oxford)

Questions of origin and influence: investigating the evidence from the ports of Alexandria and Heracleion

  1. Peter Stewart (Courtauld Institute of Art)

Totenmahl Reliefs and the Study of Roman Provincial Sculpture

  1. Rubina Raja (Aarhus University, Denmark)

Religious spaces and traditions between east and west: the sanctuary of Zeus in the decapolis city of Gerasa

  1. William Wootton (King’s College, London)

Imitation and innovation: tracking technological exchange in hellenistic mosaics

G 3. 4th century Caria: between Greeks and Persians, Defining a Carian Identity under the Hekatomnids

By creating a distinct satrapy of Caria in the 4th century B.C. and by giving its lead to the Hekatomnid dynasts, the Persian rulers seem to have offered the Carians the opportunity to emphasize the existence of a proper Carian identity, the famous “carianization” mentioned by several scholars. The definition (construction?) of this identity took many forms, among these the emergence of a Carian culture based both on local traditions and borrowings from neighbours. One of the clearest manifestations of this cultural upheaval can be seen through the “Ionian Renaissance”, which shows how Carians utilized the Greek, Ionian, architectural tradition and turned it into something new and Carian. Although it has been recently the main area to focus on the subject, architecture is not the only topic to reveal such kind of influences that can also be detected in Carian religion, coinage and language. The main goal of this session is to investigate the 4th century Carian identity through its cultural influences, from the widest possible range of archaeological sources, and to analyze its formation from a political, economical and social point of view.

 

  1. Lars Karlsson (Uppsala University, Sweden)

Combining Greek architectural orders and orientalising sculpture at Labraunda: a political statement

  1. Ignasi Adiego (University of Barcelona)

Hecatomnid ‘Carianization’: Carian language and Hellenization

  1. Koray Konuk (CNRS/ Institut Français d’Etudes Anatoliennes, Istanbul)

Coins and Identities under the Hekatomnids

  1. Olivier Henry (Koç University, Istanbul)

4th Century Carian Funerary Architecture: a Cross-cultural Outcome

  1. Pierre Debord (Michel de Montaigne-Bordeaux 3)

Zeus Pigindenos (Bargasa): au carrefour de deux cultures

  1. Poul Pedersen (University of Southern Denmark)

The 4th century BC ‘Ionian Renaissance’ in European architecture:the synthesis of a meeting of Persian financial cul-ture with Greek architectural tradition and Karian cultural ambitions?

G 2. Cultural contacts and exchange – case studies from Anatolia

Ancient Anatolia has often been described as a crossroads of civilisations enabling the transfer of goods and ideas between East and West. Different empires took control of the central plains and costal cities in order to profit from rich resources and a vivid trade. The impact of their respective rule varied depending on the importance of the region and the aims of the local potentates and foreign governers. Yet it has never been a uniform country. In contrast the patchwork of many different people determined the dynamics of development, partly continuing Bronze Age geographical patterns, partly being established by various ‘newcomers’. Due to this situation of constant interaction – between settled and settlers, city and countryside, local élite and dynast – a wide range of cultural contacts can be observed in Anatolia. The case studies assembled in this section represent this diversity and give an overview of the changing historical conditions over time. By using various models of interpretation they intend to explore the importance of material culture as a major source of understanding the processes resulting of cultural contacts. That these processes are not concluded is shown by the use and imagination of ancient culture in modern Turkey.

 

  1. Felix Pirson (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Images: Visual Culture of Lycia

  1. Isil R. Isiklikaya (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Traces of Earlier Cultures in Anatolia and their Perception in Modern Turkey

  1. Martin Bachmann (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Technology: Architectural Innovation in Anatolia

  1. Oliver Hulden (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Ethnicity: Persians by Birth or “Persianized” Locals? – The so called Persian Tombs in Anatolia as a Paradigma for a Specific Cultural Interrelation during the Achaemenid Rule

  1. Ute Kelp (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Urbanisation and Identities: The Evidence of Grave Types in Roman Phrygia

  1. Ulrich Mania (German Archaeological Institute, Istanbul)

Art and Religion: Egyptianizing sculpture from Pergamon

G 1. Being ‘Graeco-Persian’

The concept of ‘Graeco-Persian’ or ‘Perso-Anatolian’ art, as a distinct style produced under Achaemenid rule, has attracted increasing attention over the past two decades. Originally defined as a formal mix of the Greek and Persian – Greek style and Persian themes – interest has more recently shifted to a phenomenological conception of the materials as unique products of Western Anatolian culture in the Achaemenid period. There are still many questions about this phenomenon, concerning the transmission of ideas, the formation of identities and cultural change at large. For instance: did Greek art or artists play a role in the formation of ‘Perso- Anatolian’ art? What is actually ‘Persian’ in the images and material culture of Western Anatolia? How were such images employed and what did they mean in their social context? What socio-cultural identities are linked with the political and economic changes provoked by participation in the Achaemenid imperial sphere? This panel consists of five fifteen-minute papers presenting new research on Western Anatolian material culture of the Achaemenid period, with a particular focus on new material, and with the aim of making a further contribution to the understanding of cultural exchange, identity formation andthe history of Persian Asia Minor.

 

  1. Catherine M. Draycott (Somerville College, Oxford)

Introduction: What does “being ‘Graeco-Persian’” mean? An Introduction to the Papers

  1. Catherine M. Draycott (Somerville College, Oxford)

Convoy Commanders and Other Military Identities in Tomb Art of Western Anatolia around the Time of the Persian Wars

  1. Elizabeth P. Baughan (University of Richmond)

Persian Riders in Lydia? The Painted Frieze of the Aktepe Tomb kline

  1. Maya Vassileva (Centre for Thracology, BulgarianAcademy of Sciences, Sofia)

Achaemenid Interfaces: Thracian and Anatolian Representations of Elite Status

  1. Burcu Erciyas (Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara)

The Perso-Anatolian Origins of the Administrative and Religious Structure of the “Temple-States” of Pontus

  1. Lindsay Allen (King’s College, London)

Glass Drinking Vessels and Questions of Influence and Hierarchy in Achaemenid-Period Anatolia

G. Meetings of East and West – Incontri tra Oriente e Occidente

1. Being ‘Graeco-Persian’

2. Cultural contacts and exchange – case studies from Anatolia

3. 4th century Caria: between Greeks and Persians, Defining a Carian Identity under the Hekatomnids

4. Constructing spaces: assessing architectural and decorative exchange between East and West

5. Formation d’une culture urbaine aux marges du désert syro-arabique: espaces urbains et périurbains

6. Hellenistic-Roman Coastal Settlements of the Southern Levant: Regional and Interregional Assessments

7. Palmira tra Oriente e Occidente

8. Hellenization and Romanization of the Land of Israel: new archaeological evidence

9. Acculturation sur la frontière orientale de l’empire romain: l’exemple de Zeugma et de son cadre de vie

10. La Cilicia dall’età classica al tardo antico: cultura, società, economia